OSHA's Bloodborne Pathogen Standard Workers in many different occupations are at risk of exposure to bloodborne pathogens. First Responders, First aid team members, housekeeping personnel in some settings, and nurses are examples of workers who may be at risk of exposure. On December 6, 1991, the Federal Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) issued the "Occupational Exposure to Bloodborne Pathogens Standard (29 CFR 1910.1030)". Federal OSHA determined that employees have a significant health risk as the result of occupational exposure to blood and other potentially infectious materials (OPIM) because they may contain bloodborne pathogens. Theses pathogens include, but are not limited to: hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and HIV (human immunodeficiency virus). Exposure to bloodborne pathogens can be minimized or eliminated when the development of an exposure control plan addresses and implements, at the minimum, the following elements: universal precautions, combination of engineering and work practice controls, personal protective equipment, appropriate decontamination/housekeeping, communication of hazards and training, medical surveillance which includes the offering of the hepatitis B vaccination and post-exposure evaluation & follow-up, and recordkeeping. The exposure control plan is required to be reviewed and updated annually and whenever necessary to reflect new or modified tasks, procedures and engineering controls/devices which affect occupational exposure and reflect new or revised employee positions with occupational exposure. Non-managerial employees responsible for direct patient care who are potentially exposed to injuries from contaminated sharps are to be solicited in the identification, evaluation and selection of effective engineering and work practice controls and documentation of the solicitation is required to be included as part of the exposure control program.